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Geophysical & Geotechnical


Geophysical & Geotechnical

Seismic Methods

Surface seismic survey

  • Seismic refraction
  • Seismic reflection
  • Seismic refraction tomography (SRT)
  • Multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW)
  • Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW)

Borehole seismic survey

  • Full wave sonic logging
  • Down-hole seismic test
  • P&S wave suspension logging
  • Cross-hole seismic test
  • Cross-hole seismic tomography

Seismic Reflection, Refraction and MASW Methods:

Generating Seismic waves are generated using source (Sledge Hammer or Accelerator). Seismic refraction surveys are used to determine:

  • Bedrock profile, rock quality & depth, identification of geotechnical properties of the subsurface layers (Poisson ratio, Young Modulus, Shear Modulus), the presence of fractures and cavities, slope stability studies.


Borehole Seismic Survey:

Cross-hole & Down-hole Seismic Surveys

Cross-hole seismic surveys are used to derive information on the elastic properties of materials between two or more boreholes by measuring travel time of seismic energy depths.

Electrical Methods

  • Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT – 2D & 3D).
  • Vertical electrical sounding (VES).
  • Spontaneous/Self Potential (SP).
  • Shallow direct – current (DC) electrical resistivity sounding.
  • Induced polarization (IP).
  • Thermal resistivity.


1D/2D/3D Electrical Resistivity Sounding & Tomography:

The electrical methods used for measurement of subsurface resistivity to the induced electric current using DC battery. The Electrical surveys are used in;

  • Ground water exploration, determination of underground water resources, bedrock quality & depth measurements, pollution plumes mapping, mineral prospecting, detecting cavities, archaeology, dam structure analysis, and contamination sources detection.

Ground Penetrating Radar

Surface GPR Scanning.

  • 16MHz – 2600MHz Frequency.

Borehole GPR Scanning

  • 2D & 3D Scanning up to a Depth of 30 M with a Radius of 5M.

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) - (16 – 2600 MHz Frequency)

GPR technology applications include:

  • Detection & mapping of underground utilities, cavities & voids (structures – dams, bridges, weirs, barrages, etc.), road investigations, , soil - bedrock interface, water table determination, and archeology & forensics, concrete inspection, structural inspection.

Potential Field Methods

Gravity Survey

  • Land Gravity
  • Absolute Gravity
  • Relative Gravity
  • Borehole Gravity
  • Marine Gravity
  • Airborne Gravity

Magnetic Survey

  • Land Mag
  • Air Mag
  • Marine Mag

Gravity Methods

Gravity measurements are used to map density contrasts in geological formations. It is applied for the following purposes:

  • Bedrock topography under landfills, mapping large metallic mineral deposits, locating subsurface caverns, as well as cavities.


Magnetic Methods

Magnetometers can be used to map burried variations of magnetic susceptibilities. It is employed in many applications including:

  • Geological Mapping.
  • Archeology
  • Mineral Exploration.

Electromagnetic Methods

  • Frequency Domain EM.
  • Time Domain TDEM.


Electromagnetic Technique Applications

  • Location of buried metal objects (e.g., tanks & drums)
  • Mineral Exploration
  • Archeology
  • Determination of sedimentary basins thicknesses.

Geophysical Logging Methods

  • Three-arm caliper logging.
  • Temperature conductivity logging.
  • Natural gamma logging.
  • Gamma – gamma (density) logging.
  • Impeller flow meter logging.
  • Electric logging.
  • Deviation logging.


Borehole logging provides continuous record of a wide range of formation's rock properties using geophysical techniques. Determination of rocks and formations elastic properties, resistivity, or radioactivity can be made using geophysical well logging method. It is used to:

  • Distinguishing between sands and shales
  • Detecting regions where the borehole walls are compromised.
Geophysical & Geotechnical

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